Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 16-19

 Spiritual Convention and concurrent events in Cleveland

The following is the Cleveland Plain Dealer’s reporting on a three-day spiritualist convention in Cleveland in February 1852.  The convention is interesting in that the “movement” had apparently not evolved enough at this early date to allow a group of simultaneously entranced mediums to know yet how to coordinate their entranced actions, which resulted in a “want of harmony.”  Also, the reporter’s comparison of the mediums’ actions to the “Morman” gift of tongues suggests that many spiritualist mediums had first to learn the particular mode of behavior that would come to characterize spiritualist sessions—consisting not of revivalist-like phenomena, such as jerking and barking, speaking in tongues, and so on—but of peace, silence, and “concentrativeness,” as Joel Tiffany counseled the mediums assembled at this convention.

I have also reproduced below some other reporting in the newspaper during the days of the convention.  The scandal and rioting that occurred in the city at the Homeopathic College—especially since it involved the deceased—must surely have colored local perception of the spiritualists’ meeting.  Some of the leaders of the spiritualist convention listed here—such as Abel Underhill and John Sterling—were associated (at least as adjunct faculty) with the “alternative” Homeopathic College  (Sterling, for example, taught mesmerism there).—JB

“More about the Spirits,” February 16.

A QUEER CONVENTION—The following appears in the Cleveland Herald of the 3d inst.:

SPIRITUAL NOTICE—The Spirits will hold a Convention at Cleveland, Ohio on the 7th [sic] inst., for the purpose of bringing together, as near as possible, the two worlds, and to promote the cause of Truth and Wisdom—Friends of the cause are invited to attend.

P.S.  Papers friendly to the cause will please copy.
Cleveland, February 2, 1852.

What an odd assemblage this will be!  If none but “spirits”—the ethereal, disembodied, invisible authors of the “rappings”—attend this convocation, it will matter very little where they meet, for a million of them could of course comfortably accommodate themselves to the cavity of a Buckeye walnut shell.  It will cost them little for room, and nothing at all for light, fuel, stationery, &c.  It would be folly for mere mortals to attend, for they could see nothing.  Still, curiosity will doubtless be felt to hear the “rappings,” and so the “spirits” will probably have an audience, for the fools, it is said, are not all dead yet.

Who issued the above notice?  Was it “rapped out” in the office of the Herald by an invisible “spirit”?  Is the editor a “medium,” and was this announcement made through him?  Why was it made at all in a newspaper?  Do the “spirits” “take the papers”?  Have they no more ethereal and immaterial method of calling each other together in convention than the columns of a newspaper afford?  Who is to report their proceedings?  What—why—when—who—eh?  Well, that’s all at present.  Don’t answer all these queries “to onct.”  Take your time.  We can wait.  We are in no particular hurry for “spiritual manifestation” in reply.—Albany Register.

The Register wishes to know if the above notice “was wrapped [sic] out in the Herald office by an invisible spirit?”  We believe the wrapper at the Herald office was a visible spirit, weighing about 200 lbs. avoirdupois.

“Spiritual Convention,” February 16.

Tomorrow is the day set apart for the Spiritual Convention.  The Melodeon is to be the theatre of action, and the two worlds are to be brought as near together, as circumstances will admit.  We shall report to our readers all the proceedings, and give all the light that is received upon the subject, whether manufactured in this world, or received by dispatches from the other.

“Signor Kirby,” February 16.

Signor Kirby performed to a large and highly delighted audience on Saturday evening at the Melodeon.  His performances were truly astonishing, and he may be set down as one of the wonders of the age.  He performs on Wednesday evening at Whitman’s Hall in Ohio City, and we know our neighbors over the river will enjoy his performances amusingly.  We can assure them they will have a rich feast of fun and magic.

“Spirit Communications.  Conversation with the Spirit of Dr. Benjamin Franklin,” February 16.

Question—What is the nature of the spiritual state—give me an idea of what it is like.

Answer—It is in many respects like man’s elementary state on earth, but vastly more refined and expanded.  Spirits being free from the gross body, have more correct views of divine truth, and progress with much greater rapidity in wisdom and goodness.  There is as much difference between the moral and intellectual capacities of spirits, as there is between those who are yet in the body.

Q.—Does not your explanation conflict with the scripture as we understand it?

A.—It does, as many on earth understand it, but very few on earth understand it correctly—they are not aware that God is continually revealing himself and his holy will to his children in the body, according to their capacities to receive the revelation.  None of the Old or New Testament is adapted to the more enlightened portions of the human race, except the teachings of Jesus Christ.  The doctrine of endless punishment for a portion of mankind, as understood by many on earth, is a great error, yet it is true, when correctly understood.  Every spirit is continually progressing, and those who have improved their time on earth in cultivating their moral faculties, and their reasoning and intellectual powers, will enter the celestial regions in a far more advanced state than those who have neglected such self-improvement; and as they both are continually progressing higher in knowledge, holiness, and happiness, the one who enters the spiritual state in a low condition of morals and intellect, will continually remain behind him who entered the same state in a more improved condition, and this being always behind the more advanced spirits, will constitute his everlasting punishment.

Q.—What are the employments of spirits in their expanded condition after leaving their body?

A.—They are as varied as pursuits of human beings on earth—each one pursuing their favorite studies in acquainting themselves with truth and harmonies of the divine government in nature.  And each one acquires knowledge according to his capacity to receive it, and each pursues the particular branches of study to which his inclination leads.  The most perfect freedom reigns throughout the spiritual regions and every spirit seeks that knowledge which is most congenial to his taste, and no obstacle interferes with his pursuits.

Q.—Do all spirits associate with equal familiarity and intimacy?

A.—Thou art not yet sufficiently advanced to understand the regulations of social intercourse in the spiritual regions—thee shall yet understand it, and perceive its harmony and justice.

Q.—How do spiritual beings communicate with each other?  Have they the power of speech?

A.—We communicate with each other by perception—we can all perceive what is in the minds of each other.  If a question appears in the mind of the one he is conversing with—the question and answer are seen by both, but neither of them speak in such language as would be audible to mortal ears.  The more advanced spirits can speak audibly to mortal ears when it is necessary, but never speak among themselves.

Q.—Are male and female spirits assigned different places, as is done in some of our places of worship on earth?

A.—There is no distinction made between the sexes as regards places—such an arrangement would mar the harmony of the spirit world.—The male is the wisdom principle—the female is the love principle—neither are perfect alone.  Love and wisdom constitute social happiness.—Hence we all associate in friendship, as inclination leads us, and enjoy our social parties similar to those of earth; but in our social gatherings, there is much more wisdom, love and purity of thought then in such social gatherings on earth.

Q.—Can you all see what is in the minds of human beings?

A.—We can [turn our] perceptive faculties to human beings.  There are always spirits about thee that love thee more than thee can imagine—they know every thought of thy mind—remember this, and let them perceive nothing there but good desires.  Farewell, progressive brother, thou art in the way of truth; I will meet thee again, and teach thee the principles of the law of progress.

My next number will contain a communication from the spirit of Lorenzo Dow.  It is deeply interesting and important to every human being.—Philadelphia Sunday Mercury.

“Spiritual Convention,” February 17.

In accordance with the notice previously given, the Melodeon was filled at an early hour this morning, with a respectable and large body of our own citizens, as well as representatives from the various counties around us, anxious to receive light and consolation from the Spirit world.

The meeting was called to order by appointing DATUS KELLEY, Esq., Chairman, and Dr. [JONATHAN] BIGELOW, Secretary.  After a few preliminary remarks upon the nature of the subject, and its importance, which had called them together, from Mr. KELLEY and JOEL TIFFANY, Esq., Dr. [ABEL] UNDERWOOD presented a written address, dictated by the Spirits, with especial reference to this meeting, which he read to the audience.  It was a very long document, and reviewed, at considerable length, the proceedings of mankind in ages past, and promised various methods of remedying the thousand evils that at present exist, if men would but heed the warnings and instructions from the Spirit land.

JOEL TIFFANY, Esq. Then addressed the audience, stating that the meeting in the afternoon would be held for the purpose of convincing all who were wavering and doubtful upon this subject, by the influence of Mediums, who would be present—that the meeting was strictly for Spiritualists, and that none would be admitted who were not believers in the faith—any who intruded themselves under the guise of believers, would be rapped out.  This they could depend upon, and he hoped none would feel bad about it.

Dr. UNDERHILL then read a short address from the Spirits, having, especial reference to the afternoon proceedings, and forbidding any but believers from attending, and promising manifestations that shall be perfectly convincing to all.


Doctor UNDERWOOD presented another long introductory address, dictated by the Spirits, showing the importance of spiritual knowledge, in aiding and benefiting mankind, and promising various schemes for the amelioration of its condition.  After the address, most of those present joined in singing a short hymn.

Mr. TIFFANY then proposed that all who had witnessed the spiritual manifestations, or had experienced their power, and wished to make any remarks, either to give or receive any information, could now be heard.

Mr. GLEASON F. LEWIS then arose and gave an account of his experience which he deemed most remarkable, and perfectly satisfactory.—He gave some most extraordinary developments which he had experienced.

Judge PRICE, of Mahoning county, was then called upon, and gave a long account of his experience.  He stated that he had supposed the whole matter at first a humbug, until his attention was called to the subject, from reading the Plain Dealer, when he was convinced there must be something in it.  He then gave an account of the conversion of his wife, &c. [Here he was interrupted by low knocking from the Spirits all over the house.]

(The Spirits here requested the audience to silence, through one of the mediums present.)  The medium by whom we sat, had the appearance of one in a trance—her lips moved, her face was pale, and her hands moved mechanically.  She requested that the song might be sung “O that’s the rose for me,” which was done in a most solemn manner.

By request of Mr. TIFFANY, the song “My Mountain Home,” was sung, accompanied by the Piano.  Dr. UNDERHILL requested the audience to prepare themselves for manifestations by keeping as quiet as possible.  It was then requested by a medium, that more music should be had, and of a livelier character—when “Where now are the twelve apostles” was sung.

Another medium then stated that it was all curiosity, and no harmony, that was present—more harmony was wanted and wished more music.  A lively air was then played upon the Piano.  A gentleman then arose and stated that there was a great want of harmony, and a want of concentrativeness of mind, that nothing could be done of an elevated character, that spirits were governed by well known laws as well as we.  The mediums all over the house, seemed to be much excited, and perfectly ungovernable, clapping with great vigor, and apparently in a spasmodic manner; all of them expressing their conviction that in the present state of things nothing could be done.

Quite a spirited discussion then sprung up among those present, and a motion was put and carried, that the meeting adjourn for half an hour, and that at that time those who are mediums, and those who are known to be Spiritualists beyond a doubt, be requested to return, and attempt to procure manifestations.  The mediums loudly signified their approval of this arrangement by the most violent knocking.

After adjournment it was suggested that the mediums take a seat together upon the stage.  There were some fifteen in number and arrangements were soon made for accommodating them, and their friends in a large circle.

The Hall was then cleared, and none were re-admitted until they passed a door keeper who was a medium, who signified his approval or disapproval of their faith by the most extravagant manipulations.  During the re-admission of the believers violent manifestations were taking place upon the stage in the circle.  The presence of the Spirits was manifested by the most violent rappings.

Just before opening the meeting, the piano was played, the medium beating time, and some ladies present sang “Ben Bolt.”  We should think about thirty mediums were present, most of them very much excited, and making most extravagant physical demonstrations, their nervous systems apparently stretched to their utmost capacity.

Quiet being restored among the audience, the spirits testified their presence, and desired to be heard by rapping very loudly.

[Continued to-morrow.]

“Spiritual Convention,” February 18.


Doctor UNDERHILL here stated that there was still a great want of harmony among the audience, curiously being the prevailing element in the minds of those present.  He exhorted the audience to try and get their minds into as calm, peaceful and happy state as possible, throw aside all curiosity, and manifestations might yet be received which should cheer and encourage every true believer.

The mediums by the order of the Spirits at this crisis, called for some lively music, and the tune of “Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm,” was sung with great effect, the mediums testifying their gratitude then by violently beating time and getting quite excited, as the music waxed livelier and louder.  This song was followed—more music being called for—by the Missionary Hymn, “From Greenland’s icy mountains.”

A male medium then arose and in the most vociferous manner, with the most violent physical demonstrations, emitted a quantity of unintelligible jargon, similar to the Mormon gift of tongues.  It is said that this medium speaks the Indian language, when under the influence of the spirits, though when in his natural state he knows nothing of it.  Some of the mediums present seemed to understand him however, rapping at times quite vigorously.

At this stage of the proceedings, the afternoon having worn slowly away without any practical results, Mr. TIFFANY came forward, and suggested that there was full as much need of harmony among the mediums themselves, as among the audience and he suggested that if any manifestations were to be received or expected, the mediums themselves must be classified; that is the mediums of different sorts, those who write, those who rap, and those who speak being all together, and being all acted upon by different agencies, they mutually interrupted each other, and totally destroyed all harmony of action.

A motion was now made that all but the rapping mediums should leave the stage, which motion was carried into effect.  All efforts however to obtain manifestations from these mediums proved abortive, they protesting that there was such a want of harmony among those present, as to totally prevent the spirits from acting.

The meeting was then adjourned until seven o’clock P. M., and the audience left; the whole meeting having proved a total and most unqualified failure.  That there was no design or organized plan of proceeding or understanding between the mediums, as the leaders of the meeting all could see.  Every medium seemed to be going upon his or her own hook, and no systematic course of proceedings could be possibly followed.  It was considered a strong argument by the friends of the spiritual faith, that it was wholly impossible to procure manifestations when they wished them, thus showing that they were beyond their control, and that there was no fraud between the mediums, and those who controlled the meeting.  In short that manifestations could not be had upon order.

That the meeting was a total failure and a cruel disappointment to many, there is no doubt.  Various causes are assigned for it, that we will not notice.

At seven o’clock P. M. the Melodeon was filled to overflowing, and Mr. TIFFANY gave a lecture upon the laws governing the spiritual phenomena.  Quite an exciting debate sprang up near the close of the meeting between the lecturer and Mr. HURN, of House’s Telegraph.  These two gentlemen, seemingly each well charged with the magnetic fluid, and backed up by a strong battery, discussed the merits of the spiritual question with great vigor.

Here were two quite renowned operators engaged in active discussion.  The one an agent for the delivery of spiritual dispatches, and the other a telegraphic agent well known to our citizens.  The discussion was quite interesting, and which had the strongest battery we did not stay to discover.

The meeting adjourned to meet this morning at ten o’clock, when the friends of the cause were invited to attend.

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 18, 1852.

A large number of believers assembled this morning at 10 o’clock.  Several addresses were delivered.  The best of feeling prevailed, and much very interesting matter was developed.  No attempt to procure manifestations was made, but a philosophical discussion of the principles of the science took place, and the experience of members related.  This afternoon an adjourned meeting was held, but nothing of any especial interest took place.

“Spiritual Convention,” February 19.

The convention re-assembled yesterday P. M. and had a spirited and most interesting session.  Prof. MORTON, Messrs. [JAMES] KAUFFMAN, [JOHN M.] STERLING, TIFFANY and UNDERHILL, made excellent speeches setting forth the evidences and the claims of the new theory in a clear and forcible manner.

To-day the convention has been in session, the interest not abating.  Messrs. PAINE and others delivering addresses.

There has been a large attendance throughout, and the friends have been edified and encouraged in the great work of progress by an exchange of sentiments and feelings.  The convention adjourned to-day sine die.

“A Great Riot—Grave Robbing—Homeopathic College Sacked by a Mob—The Military Called Out!!”  February 17.

[The Western College of Homeopathic Medicine was founded in 1850, at the corner of Prospect and Ontario Streets.—JB]

Early yesterday morning there was a riotous assemblage of men and boys in the vicinity of the Homeopathic Medical College, in consequence of portions of a human body being discovered in a cess pool connected with the college, and which body was thought to be identified by its friends.  The story, as we learn it, is this:

The daughter of Mr. MARVIN JOHNSON, of Ohio City, was married to a Mr. JUDSON, some eighteen months ago.  She was delivered of a child the same year, and being then but a little over sixteen years old, and of a feeble constitution, she rapidly declined, from the date of her confinement, and died about the first of November last.  A broken breast was added to her other troubles, which hastened her premature demise.  She was buried in the Ohio City Cemetery, much lamented, of course, by her young husband and a doting and tender father.  About the same time a little girl four years old, the daughter of JOHN HAVER, died very suddenly with croup and was buried in the same yard with Mrs. JUDSON.  The 2d day following their burial, their grave clothes were found strewed around the burying ground, and on examining their graves, their bodies were gone.  In a nearly distracted state of mind, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Judson, and Mr. Haver, set about finding their remains.  They offered rewards, they threatened and entreated, but all to no purpose.  No clue was found of any portion of either, until a portion of a female body was discovered in the vault of this privy some days ago, was taken up and buried by order of the Faculty, and last Wednesday exhumed by Mr. Johnson and his friends, and supposed it to be his identical daughter.  Of course he was anxious to make further examinations about the College, which led him on Saturday to fish out of said vault other portions of said body, but not the parts entire.

Of course a matter of this kind brewing so long, had enlisted many sympathizing friends, and when the truth at last flashed upon them, that in addition to the sacrilege committed in wresting their loved ones from their graves, they had not only been cut up, but, as carrion filth and no longer of any service, their mangled remains had been thrown into a cess pool, this most mortifying and abominable of all human desecrations, was more than Johnson and his friends could bear, and they demanded entrances to the dissecting room, that the worst concerning the bodies of their friends should be known.  In this appeal, hundreds joined who were good and peaceable citizens, and who only asked justice in the premises, but there were many, as there always are on such occasions, who were mere boys, loafers, and mobocrats of the very lowest order, that joined on purpose to have a row.  They at once took matters into their own hands, and a more disgraceful mob was never seen in any city.  First, the fire bells rung, which brought the firemen and thousands of our citizens on to the ground.—The Police were early on the ground, and attempted to keep the rioters out of the building, but they were instantly overpowered, and the mob entered.  A pistol was shown to the crowd in the rear of the building, by way of menace, when every window was pelted in by stones from without.

The Mayor and the City Authorities were sent for, but their presence was not at all regarded, and one or two of the Council were beaten and driven from the crowd.  J[OHN] W. FITCH, Councilman from the First Ward, succeeded in getting Johnson out of the crowd, and down to the Council Hall, where he was met by several of the Faculty from the College, and assured that the matter should be speedily investigated, and whatever they could do to restore to him his daughter, should be done.  They admitted that, as was customary in all such institutions, they had been in the habit of procuring bodies for dissection, not from neighboring towns, where friends would miss and grieve at their displacement; but from abroad, and from those regularly engaged in the trade, that if his daughter, or any part of her, had been found in their possession, she had been smuggled in not according to contract, or some envious or evil-minded persons had done this to throw odium and disrepute upon the College.  Johnson was more anxious to get together the remains of his daughter, than to censure or vent his indignation upon any particular ones, and agreed to wait the issue of an investigation, on condition that he and a few of his friends should be allowed to look through the apartments of the College before any thing was removed, in hopes to find the missing parts.  This was agreed to.  In the meantime, and while the more determined of Johnson’s friends armed with axes and clubs, and who accompanied him were down street, the Mayor had got possession of the building, and instructed the Sheriff to detail men enough to keep possession of it.  But as soon as Johnson returned, the crowd were as uproarious as ever, and put Mayor, Sheriff, and all authority at defiance.  It was proposed to call out the Fire Department, and “throw cold water” on the crowd, but it was deemed prudent by those in possession of the machines to let them remain where they were.

At last Johnson appointed a committee of five to go with him through the building and examine every part.  It had now got to be dark and the crowd was increasing.  With candles and bludgeons the committee proceeded, as nothing would satisfy the rioters but a thorough investigation.  This was most effectually had.  Every door that offered any obstructions was burst in, from the 2d to the 4th story.  The mob occupied the door-ways, stairs, and side-walks, waiting the committee’s report.  Arriving at the dissecting room, which was in the cock-loft, the committee smashed in the doors, and found laying on the table the body of a man partly dissected, on another table another, and in one corner a dry goods box nearly filled with heads, feet, trunks and other portions of the “human form divine” which had contributed their donations to the “lights of science.”  In this box was found what Mr. Johnson identified as the hand of his daughter.  He wrapped it in a piece of paper and descended with the committee on to the side-walk.  He was requested to state to the crowd what had been done, and urge them as friends of his to disperse and go home.  He did so, but when he spoke of finding what he believed to be the hand of his daughter, it was the signal for the crowd to rush into the building, which they did, and a scene followed which beggars all description.  Every window was smashed, sash and all, and every movable thing within pitched out upon the side-walk.  Not only the college portion of the building, but even that occupied by private families, were thrown into the street.

The College desks, chairs, tables, student’s beds, cook-stoves, doors, and the Museum, which was a fine collection of specimens of beasts, birds, fish, insects, skeletons, &c., &c., all went pell-mell and hurly-burly into the streets, the mob, outside and in, shouting at every crash of the perishables.

At last the dissecting room was reached and such a howling scene was never witnessed this side of Pluto’s regions.  The bloody remnants of mortality were thrown helter-skelter out of the windows on to the side-walks, the crowd below, or wherever else they might land.  This was the most disgusting part of the performance.  One full-length skeleton was lashed to a barber’s pole, and all sorts of fiendish demonstrations made.

Twice the building was fired, and twice the fire-bells rang.  But, at last, worried their over-exertions and the work of demolition was done, the rioters vamoosed, and at nine o’clock the Authorities had possession of the building again, and

“Order reigned in Warsaw!”
Fifty armed men stayed in the building all night, but this morning another gathering assembled, and signs of another demonstration were visible.  The Military were promptly called out.  Capt. WOOD, of the Light Artillery charged with “grape,” occupied the center of a hollow square, formed by the Cleveland Battalion of Infantry.  In full battle array arrests commenced by the civil authorities, assisted by squads of the military, and some twenty-five or thirty of the more refractory are in duresse.

But the mischief is done; the disgrace resulting from such proceedings is attached to our city, and a large tax in the way of reparation to private individuals, and bills of cost for the County, in the way of criminal proceedings, inevitably ensues.  A mob is a new thing in the Forest City.  Our Authorities have evidently been caught napping, but we hope better things from all concerned in future.  As to who is to blame, we leave that to time, to the courts, and an enlightened public opinion.  In the meantime, we publish, with pleasure, the following Card from the Professors:

Address to the Public:


In view of the recent destruction of our halls, by a mob, and the numerous false rumors in circulation, it becomes necessary that we should make a statement of causes which produced and fostered this disgraceful movement.

The College commenced its regular session upon the first Monday in November—having made arrangements for procuring its subjects from a distant city.  Soon after the commencement of the session, several weeks before the dissecting rooms of our College were opened, the body of a daughter of Mr. Johnson, of Ohio City, was abstracted from its grave.  A search was made by the father in both Colleges—but nothing was found in our edifice.

Near the middle of February, an occupant of a room in one of the lower stories of the edifice discovered a body in the vault of a privy in the rear of the edifice.  The body was raised by the Janitor, and under the direction of the Dean, was interred in the City Cemetery.

Further examination of the vault disclosed fragments of bodies which had been dissected.  On Saturday, the 14th inst., several days after the interment, Mr. Johnson disinterred the buried body, and pronounced it that of his daughter.

Accordingly, upon the 16th inst., he appeared at the College edifice, armed with an axe, and accompanied by others provided with clubs.  The crowd continued to swell until a mob of some two hundred was assembled, consisting mostly of Germans, Irish, drunken Americans from Ohio City, and idle boys, attracted by the crowd.  At this time, about 2 o’clock P. M., Prof. [GEORGE] WITHERELL returning to the edifice, where his room was, found it garrisoned by some seven or eight students, defending it against the crowd.  Proceeding to the rear of the building, he saw the Mayor, and about fifty persons of the crowd.  Some twenty persons having forced their way into the building, were removed by the Mayor, who then proceeded, as he said, to procure assistance to disperse the mob.  On the departure of the Mayor, the doors were closed, and the building left in the charge of Prof. Witherell and the few students who were present.  Soon after, the doors were forced and the mob, headed by Johnson, armed with his axe, effected an entrance.

A citizen however having succeeded in removing Johnson, Prof. Witherell and his small garrison were able with the assistance of two or three citizens, to prevent the crowd from ascending to the third story, until the return of the Mayor with several police men, by whose aid the building was cleared, after which it was left in the possession of the police.

Nothing further transpired until after dark, when the boys among the crowd commenced breaking the windows, and the mob entered the building.  In their aimless fury, they destroyed some valuable anatomical specimens, an excellent chemical apparatus and ruined a choice museum, containing specimens that can never be replaced.

Thus in the quiet performance of our duties, with no violation on our part of custom or propriety, our halls have been broken up, our cabinet ruined and our session interrupted.  The fragments found in the vault were thrown there without the cognizance of the faculty, they having contracted with and paid the janitor to give them a decent burial.  They have been promptly buried by him last year, we had no reason to suppose him delinquent this year.—Nor do we still know but some individual may have thrown them in without his privity.  Nor was there any odor to attract attention, until those who searched the vault had emptied its contents on the ground.

As to the body found in the vault, if it was ever in the edifice, it was carried there after the closing of the dissecting rooms, furtively and contrary to a by-law of the institution.  The faculty are no more responsible for this act than for any similar lawless act committed during the vacation of the school.

It is to be regretted that in the course of the riot, individuals occupying a position in society superior to the mass of the mob, should have talked in such a manner as rather to stimulate the mob than to allay their excitement.

By order of the Faculty.

H. L. SMITH, Registerer.

“More about the Riot—Disposition of the Forces,” February 18.

About fifty armed men kept possession of the Homeopathic College last night.  Two military companies were garrisoned at the Court House.  The Artillery company made their head quarters in the jail, where the Rioters arrested yesterday were confined.  The Allopathic College [i.e., the Cleveland Medical College, later the Medical School of the Case Western Reserve University] expecting an attack, had one hundred muskets, several revolvers, and a few jack knives, in the hands of Professors, students and friends, prepared to resist the threatened invasion.  Several reports reached head quarters, saying that one thousand armed men, over the Cuyahoga, were about making a descent upon the city.—Scouts, spies, and reconnoitering parties, were sent out, but no indications of a mob appearing, the “standing army” was reduced by the disbanding of the “R. A. Fusiliers,” under Capt. J. W. Fitch, who, throughout the campaign, had borne themselves with great gallantry, and were considered the Reliables, (when no fighting was to be done.)

At daylight, all was still, save now and then a “groan” from the “Allopathic Invincibles,” who slept on their arms in the college of “invalids” and a broadside of snores which escaped from the “Regulars,” as they lay in groups about the old Court House, and dreamed of battles yet to be won.  Order has reigned throughout the day, and if the arrests which are yet to be made are not resisted by “armed intervention,” we think the “wars are o’er.”

We exceedingly regret the allusion made in the Professors’ card, published by us last night, to the “German, Irish, and drunken Americans from Ohio City.”  We have no doubt the Professors did not intend to cast any reflections upon the first as a nation nor upon the last as a people, but only reiterated what they might casually have heard in the street.  Several of the Rioters have been released to-day on bail.  Their trials commence to-morrow at 9 A. M. at the Court House.

“Another Daniel,” February 18.

We are sorry to see the distorted and unfair article in the Plain Dealer of last evening.—It is well calculated to strengthen and excite anew the mob spirit.  Of course, it was not so intended.  The Herald takes the proper view of the matter, and every good citizen will thank it for it.—True Dem.

The article in the Plain Dealer was the only full and fair one published in any of the city papers, and all lovers of truth will thank us for it.  The People, who are the Jurors in the matter, want the whole truth, and the facts just as they occurred, in order to make up an impartial judgment, and this they got from us and us only, without fear or favor.  Our relation of the facts will be sustained by the oaths of hosts of the most credible witnesses whenever this matter is judicially investigated.

Our burial places, which we have taken so much pain to adorn, and the bodies of our friends, deposited within their sacred precincts, to many the relics of all held dear on earth, must not be molested by stranger hands.  So long as grave-robbing is practiced, just so long will mobs exist, and there is no government strong enough to put them down.  Life and property will ever be endangered; and a community who desires peace, must take every precaution against such provocations.  The living have a right to the protection of the laws against such outrages on the bodies of their deceased friends.  If not protected in that right, the nature of the crime is such as inevitably leads to mobs, for it not only exasperates the feelings to an uncontrollable degree, enlists the sympathies of numerous friends, but, owing to the secrecy with which such acts are committed, compels the injured to a secret and sleepless vigilance in ferreting out the wrong, and leads to a second outrage in order to make good the first.  It is impossible for any general law to hit upon every point of justice, and this is one of those cases where the law’s delays, to say nothing of its uncertainties, are fatal to the object of its mission.  We say again, too much care cannot be taken by students and faculties against such provocations, but when proper prudence is exercised, let no one be censured except the grave-robber himself, and let him suffer the severest penalties of the law.  There is no excuse under a well administered constitutional and republican government for a mob.  A riotous assemblage that will not disperse at the first command of the proper authorities, should be promptly dealt with on BONAPARTE’s plan: “Shoot first, and reason after.”  Had this promptness been used in this case, there would have been no damage done.  We hope, in this case, to see grave-robbers and rioters brought to speedy justice, and will do all in our power to this end, but, at the same time, we want the whole facts in the case known, so that public censure, where crime is not charged and the law does not take effect, may fall where indiscretion only may merit it.  Our object is to prevent injustice, for it is a humane maxim of the law, “It is better that ten guilty should go unpunished, than that one innocent person suffer.”


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